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March 2023: 60 years since the Syrian Revolution


Founded by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar, the Ba’ath movement was ruled by the middle class, but it managed to incorporate the peasant population, thus opening the path for the successful Revolution of March 8, 1963. This process was also inspired by the military coup of its Iraqui branch against Abdul Karim Qasim a month earlier.

The coup was planned by the military committee led by Muhammad Umran, Salah Jadid and Hafez al-Assad who later expelled the civilian leadership, culminating in the 1966 coup d’état, which ousted Aflaq and his supporters. This also meant the split between the Syrian and Iraqi regional factions.

Ba’athism focused on Syria’s economic progress through the implementation of an agrarian reform that secured food sovereignty. It also took control of strategic industrial sectors, nationalized banks and oil resources. In foreign policy, it supported Palestine and built closer ties to the USSR.

Text: Andreína ChávezIllustration: Valentina Aguirre.


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