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On November 7, 1931, on the 14th anniversary of the October Revolution, the Chinese Communist Party proclaimed the Jiangxi Soviet (also known as the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet) in the southeast part of the country that was under communist control during the Civil War.
The Jiangxi Soviet was the beating heart of the so-called Chinese Soviet Republic. With Mao Zedong at the helm, this was the first intent to establish a state. At its peak, the Communist Party ruled over an area of around 30,000 square kilometers and some 3 million people.
However, the Chinese Red Army remained at a huge military disadvantage against what was then the Republic of China government. The nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek ended up overrunning the Jiangxi Soviet.
But this was not the end. The communist retreat became known as the “Long March.” After the epic, challenging campaign, Mao’s forces regrouped in the People’s Liberation Army that would soon go on the offensive again, fighting the nationalists as well as Japanese occupation until finally triumphing in 1949.